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Confidence & Trust

How to Build it in the Digital Domain

5th part of our digital dicussion series "Cyberwarfare - Cyberpeacebuilding: On a Search for a Cooperative Security Architecture Cyberspace"



The cyberspace is increasingly marked by a digital arms race. The number of states that run active military cyber programs has grown in recent years. Cyber-attacks and digital disinformation campaigns have become more sophisticated and numerous. With the COVID-19 pandemic and the accelerated digitalization in almost all areas of life, the destructive potentials of cyber conflicts seem to have grown even further.

The international rules-based order is clearly showing various signs of erosion and great power competition is on the rise. The cyberspace is not exempted from this global trend. However, taking the conclusion of two multi-annual UN experts forums on cyber security in Spring 2021 (the OWEG and the UNGEE) as an occasion – we would nevertheless like to brainstorm proposals on how to move closer to a more cooperative security architecture in cyberspace. By this virtual discussion series, we aim to explore the different dimensions of cyber conflicts and elaborate on ideas of how the digital realm could become more stable and secure with the help of international cooperation.


Dienstag, 18.05.2021
16:00 Uhr
Confidence & Trust – How to Build it in the Digital Domain

Confidence Building Measures (CBMS) were in particular prominent between nuclear powers during the Cold War era. CBMS are meant to address, prevent, or resolve uncertainties among rivals in order to avert unwanted escalations and preserve fragile stability in times of intensified power competition. In recent years, CBMS were introduced into the cyber domain and several organizations – such as the OSCE, the African Union, the G7 or the G20 – gained experience with trust and confidence-building initiatives. Future efforts to establish a cooperative security architecture in cyberspace, will therefore most likely grant CBMS a prominent role. Against this background, it is the purpose of this workshop session to take stock of the CBMS lessons that were made in the past and elaborate on ideas on how these measures could be improved in the future within the cyber domain.

Jürgen ALTMANN, Lecturer/Researcher, Department of Physics at Technische Universität Dortmund, Co-Founder of the German Research Association for Science, Disarmament and International Security (FONAS), Dortmund/Germany

Erica BORGHARD, Senior Fellow at the Atlantic Council and Senior Director of the Cyberspace Solarium Commission, New York

Andreas KUEHN, Senior Fellow, Cyberspace Cooperation Initiative, Observer Research Foundation America (ORF America), San Francisco

Szilvia TÓTH, Cyber Security Officer, Secretariat of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Vienna

17:45 Uhr
End of Discussion


Dr. Jürgen Altmann
is a physicist and peace researcher at TU Dortmund University, Germany. Since 1985 he has studied scientific-technical problems of disarmament. An experimental focus is automatic sensor systems for co-operative verification of disarmament and peace agreements and for IAEA safeguards for an underground final repository. The second focus is assessment of new military technologies and preventive arms control, including verification. Studies have dealt with “non-lethal” weapons, civilian and military technologies in aviation, military uses of microsystems technology and of nanotechnology, armed uninhabited/autonomous vehicles and confidence and security building measures for cyber forces.
Dr. Erica Borghard
is a senior fellow with the Technology and International Affairs Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Erica also continues to serve as a senior director on the US Cyberspace Solarium Commission. Previously, Erica was a senior fellow with the New American Engagement Initiative at the Scowcroft Center for Strategy and Security in the Atlantic Council. Prior to that, Erica was an Assistant Professor in the Army Cyber Institute at the United States Military Academy at West Point; and also served as an Assistant Professor and Executive Director of the Rupert H. Johnson Grand Strategy Program in the Department of Social Sciences at West Point. Erica was also a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow, with placement at JPMorgan Chase and US Cyber Command. Erica received her PhD in Political Science from Columbia University. She is a term member at the Council on Foreign Relations and an adjunct research fellow at the Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies at Columbia University.
Szilvia Tóth
currently works as the Cyber Security Officer at the Secretariat of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the largest regional security organisation. In her scope of work she is responsible for supporting participating States of the OSCE in cyber related matters, including assistance in developing and implementing cyber Confidence Building Measures. Previously Ms. Tóth was a diplomat at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Hungary for 10 years, having worked on cyber issues and EU affairs. She was also a member of the first Hungarian European Union Presidency team in 2011. Before joining the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, she worked in the private sector: at the mobile phone operator Vodafone Hungary and fixed-line telecom service provider United Telecom Investment. She appeared at a number of national and international conferences and workshops as speaker or moderator on the topic of international cooperation in the field of cyberspace. She holds a Bachelor’s degree in International communications and a Master’s degree in European Union affairs. She is an alumna of the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, having completed the Program on Cyber Security Studies in 2014 (PCSS 15-1) and was an adjunct faculty member and co-seminar leader at the same course in 2018.
Andreas Kuehn
Senior Fellow, Cyberspace Cooperation Initiative, Observer Research Foundation America (ORF America), San Francisco






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